What is diabetes?
A: Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high
blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Symptoms of high blood sugar include what?
A: Frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.
If left untreated, diabetes can cause what?
A: Many complications.
Acute complications can include what?
A: Diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.
Serious long-term complications include what?
A: Cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not doing what?
A: Responding properly to the insulin produced.
What are the three main types of diabetes mellitus?
A: Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, and Gestational diabetes.
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a what?
A: A healthy diet, regular physical
exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.
Type 1 DM must be managed with what?
A: Insulin injections.
Type 2 DM may be treated with what?
A: Medications with or without insulin.
Insulin and some oral medications can cause what?
A: Low blood sugar.
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with what type of diabetes?
A: Type 2 DM.
Gestational diabetes usually resolves after what?
A: The birth of the baby.
As of 2015, how many people had diabetes worldwide?
A: An estimated 415 million.
Which type of diabetes makes up about 90% of the cases?
A: Type 2 DM.
This represents what percentage of the adult population, with equal rates in both
women and men?
As of 2014, trends suggested the rate would continue to do what?
A: To rise.
Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of what?
A: Early death.
From 2012 to 2015, how many deaths each year resulted from diabetes?
A: Approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million.
The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be what?
A: US$612 billion.
In the USA what did diabetes cost in 2012?
A: $245 billion.
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are what?
A; Unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in which type of diabetes?
A: Type 1 DM.
Symptoms usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in which type?
A: Type 2 DM.
In addition to the known symptoms above, they can include what other symptoms?
A: Blurred vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin.
Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to what?
A: Changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes.
Long-term vision loss can also be caused by what?
A: Diabetic retinopathy.
A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as what?
A: Diabetic dermadromes.
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with what?
A: Type 1 and type 2 DM.
Most cases are mild and are not considered what?
A: Medical emergencies.
Moderately low blood sugar may easily be mistaken for what?
Mild to moderate cases are self-treated by eating or drinking something high in what?
Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with what?
A: Intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.
People (usually with type 1 DM) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a metabolic disturbance characterized by what?
A: Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
A rare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), which is more common in type 2 DM and is mainly the result of what?
All forms of diabetes increase the risk of what?
A: Long-term complications.
The major long-term complications relate to damage to what?
A: Blood vessels.
Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to what?
A: Coronary artery disease.
Other macrovascular diseases include what?
A: Stroke, and peripheral artery disease.
The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to what?
A: The eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, and can result in what?
A: Gradual vision loss and eventual blindness.
Diabetes also increases the risk of having what?
A; Glaucoma, cataracts, and other eye problems.
It is recommended that diabetics visit an eye doctor how often?
A: Once a year.
Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to what?
A: Tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.
What is the most common complication of diabetes?
A: Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy.
The symptoms can include what?
A: Numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin.
Diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring what?
Compared to those without diabetes, those with the disease have a 1.2 to 1.5-fold greater rate of decline in what?
A: Cognitive function.
Being diabetic, especially when on insulin, increases the risk of what in older people?
The term "diabetes", without qualification, usually refers to what?
A: Diabetes mellitus.
The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to what?
A: The loss of beta cells and thus insulin.
It causes approximately what percentage of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe?
Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy what when onset occurs?
Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially when?
A: In the early stages.
Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were found where?
A: In children.
"Brittle" diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in what?
A: Glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, with multiple genes, including what?
A: Certain HLA genotypes, known to influence the risk of diabetes.
In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by what?
A: One or more environmental factors, such as a viral infection or diet.
Among dietary factors, data suggest that gliadin (a protein present in gluten) may play a role in the development of what?
A: Type 1 diabetes, but the mechanism is not fully understood.
Reduced insulin secretion and absorption leads to what?
A: High glucose content in the blood.
The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the what?
A: The insulin receptor.