What is a Vegan?
A: A follower of the diet or the philosophy of Veganism.
What is Veganism?
A: Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in
diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming
animal products, not only meat but also what?
A: Eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances.
The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but also do what?
A: Extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animals for any purpose.
Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on what premise?
A: That the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.
Some reviews have shown that some people who eat vegan diets have less what?
A: Chronic disease, including heart disease, than people who do not follow a restrictive diet.
The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for whom?
A: Children or adolescents, or during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Vegan diets tend to be higher in what?
A: Dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and phytochemicals.
Vegan diets tend to be lower in what?
A: Dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids,
vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.
Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that do what?
A: Nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues.
Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of what?
A: Fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements.
Why is vitamin B12 supplementation especially important ?
A: Because its deficiency causes
blood disorders and potentially irreversible neurological damage.
Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he did what?
A: When he co-founded the Vegan Society in England.
At first he used it to mean what?
A: "Non-dairy vegetarian", but from 1951 the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".
When did interest in veganism increase?
A: In the 2010s, especially in the latter half.
More vegan stores opened and vegan options became increasingly available where?
A: In supermarkets and restaurants in many countries.
The term "vegetarian" has been in use since around when?
A: 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a
vegetable regimen or diet.
The earliest-known written use is attributed to whom?
A: The actress Fanny Kemble around 1839 in Georgia in the United States.
The practice can be traced to where?
A: The Indus Valley Civilization in 3300–1300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent, particularly in northern and western India and in Pakistan.
The Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of what?
A: Strict vegetarianism, but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he ever advocated any form of vegetarianism at all.
He almost certainly prohibited his followers from eating what?
A: Eating beans and from wearing woolen garments.
What Arab poet was one of the earliest known vegans?
A: The Arab poet al-Maʿarri (c. 973 – c. 1057).
Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in what century?
A: 19th-century England and the United States.
In 1813, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating what?
A: "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors".
In 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure what?
A: Anything from tuberculosis to acne.
Lambe called animal food a what?
A: A "habitual irritation", and argued that "milk eating and flesh-eating are but branches of a common system and they must stand or fall together".
When did Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham diet, mostly
fruit, vegetables, water, and
bread made at home with stone ground flour, became popular as a health remedy in the United States?
A: In the 1830s.
What did the Medical Times and Gazette in London report in 1884?
A: There are two kinds of Vegetarians, one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or
An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to what?
A: Shoe leather, which suggests the presence of vegans within the membership who rejected animal use entirely, not only in diet.
When was the first known vegan cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon's No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, published in London?
A: In 1910.
The consumption of milk and eggs became what?
A: A battleground over the following decades.
During a visit to London in 1931, Mahatma Gandhi—who had joined the Vegetarian Society's executive committee when he lived in London from 1888 to 1891—gave a speech to the Society arguing what?
A: That it ought to promote a meat-free diet as a matter of morality, not health.
Lacto-vegetarians acknowledged the ethical consistency of the vegan position but regarded a vegan diet as what?
A: Impracticable and were concerned that it might be an impediment to spreading vegetarianism if vegans found themselves unable to participate in social circles where no non-animal food was available.
This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in
1935 stated what?
A: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."
In August 1944, several members of the Vegetarian Society asked that a section of its newsletter be what?
A: Devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism.
When the request was turned down, what did Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester branch do?
A: He set up a new quarterly newsletter in November 1944, priced tuppence.
What did he call it?
A: The Vegan News.
He chose the word vegan himself, based on what?
A: The first three and last two letters of ‘vegetarian’ because it marked the beginning and end of vegetarian".
The first edition attracted more than 100 letters, including from George Bernard Shaw, who resolved to do what?
A: To give up eggs and dairy.
Where did the new Vegan Society hold its first meeting in early November?
A: At the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London.
Who were in attendance?
A: Donald Watson, Elsie B. Shrigley, Fay K. Henderson, Alfred Hy Haffenden, Paul Spencer and Bernard Drake, with Mme Pataleewa (Barbara Moore, a Russian-British engineer) observing.
World Vegan Day is held when?
A: Every November 1st to mark the founding of the Society and the month of November is considered by the Society to be World Vegan Month.
Barbara Moore attended the first meeting of the Vegan Society as a what?
A: As an observer.
The Vegan News changed its name to what in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers?
A: The Vegan.
It published recipes and a "vegan trade list" of animal-free products, such as what?
A: Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi shoe polish, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue.
The first vegan society in the United States was founded in
1948 by whom?
A: Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson's newsletter.
In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded what?
A: The American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.
In the 1960s and 1970s, a vegetarian food movement emerged as part of the counterculture in the United States that focused on concerns about what?
A: Diet, the environment, and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening.
What was one of the most influential vegetarian books of that time?
A: Frances Moore Lappé's 1971 text, Diet for a Small Planet.
It sold how many copies were sold worldwide?
A: More than three million.
In 2003 two major North American dietitians' associations indicated that well-planned vegan diets were suitable for what?
A: All life stages.
In the 1980s, veganism became associated with what?
A: Punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge hardcore punk in the United States.