What is Seafood?
A: Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Seafood prominently includes what?
A: Fish and shellfish.
Shellfish include various species of what?
A: Mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are widely eaten as seafood around the world, especially where?
A: In Asia.
In North America, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to what?
A: Fresh water organisms eaten by humans.
The harvesting of wild seafood is usually known as what?
A: Fishing or hunting.
The cultivation and farming of seafood is known as what?
A: Aquaculture, or fish farming in the case of fish.
Seafood is often distinguished from meat, although it is still what?
A: Animal and is excluded in a
Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world, especially where?
A: In coastal areas.
Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as what?
A: Fish food to farm other fish or rear farm animals.
Products, such as oil and spirulina tablets, are what?
A: Extracted from seafoods.
Some seafood is fed to aquarium fish, or used to feed what?
A: Domestic pets, such as
A small proportion is used in medicine, or is used industrially for what?
A: Non-food purposes (leather).
The harvesting, processing, and consuming of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological evidence dating back how far?
A: Well into the Paleolithic.
Findings in a sea cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa indicate modern humans harvested marine life as early as how many years ago?
The Neanderthals, an extinct human species contemporary with early Homosapiens, appear to have been eating seafood at sites along the Mediterranean coast beginning when?
A: Around the same time.
Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old anatomically modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he what?
A: Regularly consumed freshwater fish.
Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for what?
A: Survival and consumed in significant quantities.
However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with what?
A: Fishing as a major source of food.
The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a what for much of the population?
A: Staple food.
The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in what?
A: Tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents.
Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a what?
A: A pastime.
Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of what?
A: The low social status of fishing.
However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on what?
A: Sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180.
The consumption of fish varied in accordance with what?
A: The wealth and location of the household.
In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood (squid, octopus, and shellfish) were what?
They were eaten locally but more often what?
A: Transported inland.
Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of what Greek city?
They were sometimes sold fresh, but more frequently how?
What were common salt water fish?
A: Yellowfin tuna, red mullet, ray, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy which was eaten salted.
Lake Copais itself was famous in all Greece for it’s what?
A: its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians.
Other fresh water fish were what?
A: Pike-fish, carp and the less appreciated catfish.
Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from what?
At a certain time the goatfish was considered the epitome of luxury, above all because its scales exhibit a bright red color when what?
A: When it dies out of water.
For this reason these fish were occasionally allowed to die slowly where?
A: At the table.
In medieval times, seafood was less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to what?
A: Meat on fast days.
Still, seafood was the mainstay of many what?
A: Coastal populations.
Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as where?
While large quantities of fish were eaten fresh, a large proportion was what?
A: Salted, dried, and, to a lesser extent, smoked.
Stockfish, cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be what?
A: Time-consuming and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water.
A wide range of mollusks including oysters, mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as what?
A: A desirable alternative to meat during fish days.
Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for whom?
A: Inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most.
Modern knowledge of the reproductive cycles of aquatic species has led to the development of what?
A: Hatcheries and improved techniques of fish farming and aquaculture.
Better understanding of the hazards of eating raw and undercooked fish and shellfish has led to what?
A: Improved preservation methods and processing.
What are pelagic fish?
Fish that live and feed near the surface or in the water column of the sea, but not on the bottom of the sea.
Smaller forage fish (herring, sardines, sprats, anchovies, menhaden) feed on what?
A: Plankton, and can accumulate toxins to a degree.
The larger predator fish (sharks, tuna, marlin, swordfish, mackerel, salmon), feed on what?
A: The forage fish, and accumulate toxins to a much higher degree than the forage fish.
Where do demersal fish live and feed?
A: On or near the bottom of the sea.
Demersal fish feed mainly on crustaceans they find on the sea floor, and are more what than the pelagic fish?
Pelagic fish usually have the red flesh characteristic of what?
A: The powerful swimming muscles they need.
Demersal fish usually have what color flesh?
Diadromous fish are fishes which migrate between what?
A: The sea and fresh water.
Bivalve sometimes referred to as clams, have a protective what?
A: Shell in two hinged parts.
A valve is the name used for the protective shell of a bivalve, so bivalve literally means what?
A: Two shells.
Important seafood bivalves include what?
A: Oysters, scallops, mussels and cockles.
Most of these are filter feeders which bury themselves in sediment on the seabed where they are what?
A: Safe from predation.
Others lie on the sea floor or attach themselves to what?
A: Rocks or other hard surfaces.
Some, such as scallops, can do what?
Oysters were cultured in ponds by whom?
A: The Romans.
Aquatic gastropods, also known as sea snails, are univalves which means they have what?
A: A protective shell that is in a single piece.
Gastropod literally means what?
A: Stomach-foot, because they appear to crawl on their stomachs.
Common seafood groups are what?
A: Abalone, conch, limpets, whelks and periwinkles.