What is Gluten?
A: Gluten is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins that is stored together with starch in the endosperm of various cereal grains.
Where is it is found?
A: In wheat, barley, rye, oats and related species and hybrids (such as spelt, khorasan, emmer, einkorn, triticale, etc.), as well as products derived from these grains (such as
breads and malts).
Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for what properties?
A: Their viscoelastic properties which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.
Wheat, barley, rye and oat prolamins are respectively known as what?
A: Gliadins, hordeins, secalins and avenins; these protein classes are often collectively referred to as gluten.
The storage proteins in maize and rice are sometimes called glutens, but they what?
A: They differ from true gluten.
In a small part of the general human population, gluten can do what?
A: Trigger adverse autoimmune reactions responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac
disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.
What is their treatment?
A: The gluten-free diet.
The occurrence of oat avenin toxicity depends on what?
A: The oat cultivar consumed, because the immunoreactivities of toxic prolamins are different among oat varieties.
Also, many oat products are cross-contaminated with what?
A: Other gluten-containing cereals.
Gluten is a protein complex that accounts for what percentage of the total protein in bread wheat?
In home or restaurant cooking how is gluten prepared from flour?
A: By kneading the flour under water, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network known as a dough, and then washing out the starch.
Starch granules disperse in low-temperature water, and the dispersed starch is what?
A: Sedimented and dried.
If a saline solution is used instead of water what is obtained?
A: Purer protein with certain harmless impurities departing the solution with the starch.
Where starch is the prime product why is cold water the favored solvent?
A: Because the impurities depart from the gluten.
In industrial production a slurry of wheat flour is kneaded vigorously by machinery until the gluten does what?
A: Agglomerates into a mass.
How is this mass collected?
A: By centrifugation, then transported through several stages integrated in a continuous process.
About 65% of the water in the wet gluten is removed by means of a what?
A: A screw press.
The remainder is sprayed through an atomizer nozzle into a drying chamber, where it remains at an elevated temperature for a short time to do what?
A: To allow the water to evaporate without denaturing the gluten.
The process yields what?
A: A flour-like powder with a 7% moisture content, which is air cooled and pneumatically transported to a receiving vessel.
What is done in the final step?
A: The processed gluten is sifted and milled to produce a uniform product.
Gluten content has been implicated as a factor in what?
A: The staling of bread, possibly because it binds water through hydration.
In baked goods, the formation of gluten affects the what?
A: The texture of the baked goods.
Gluten's attainable elasticity is proportional to its content of glutenins with what?
A: Low molecular weights, as this portion contains the preponderance of the sulfur atoms responsible for the cross-linking in the gluten network.
Further refining of the gluten leads to what?
A: Chewier dough such as that found in
pizza and bagels.
Less refining yields tender baked goods such as what?
A: Pastry products.
Generally, bread flours are high in what?
A: Gluten (hard wheat); pastry flours have a lower gluten content.
Kneading promotes the formation of gluten strands and cross-links, creating baked products that are what?
A: Chewier (as opposed to more brittle or crumbly).
The "chewiness" increases as the dough is what?
A: Kneaded for longer times.
Increased moisture content in the dough enhances what?
A: Gluten development.
Very wet dough left to rise for a long time requires no what?
Shortening inhibits formation of cross-links and is used, along with diminished water and less kneading, when a what is desired?
A: A tender and flaky product, such as a pie crust.
The strength and elasticity of gluten in flour is measured in the baking industry using a what?
A: A farinograph.
This gives the baker a measurement of quality for different varieties of what?
A: Flours when developing recipes for various baked goods.
Gluten, when dried, milled and added to ordinary flour dough, may help improve what?
A: The dough's ability to increase in volume.
The resulting mixture also increases the bread's what?
A: Structural stability and chewiness.
Gluten-added dough must be worked vigorously to induce it to what?
A: Rise to its full capacity; an automatic bread machine or food processor may be required for high-gluten kneading.
Generally, higher gluten levels are associated with what?
A: Higher overall protein content.
Gluten is often used in imitation what?
A: Meats to provide supplemental protein and variety in vegetarian diets.
Gluten, especially wheat gluten, is often the basis for imitation meats resembling what?
A: Beef, chicken, duck, fish and
When cooked in broth, gluten absorbs some of the what?
A: The surrounding liquid (including the flavor) and becomes firm to the bite.
Gluten is often present in beer and what?
A: Soy sauce, and can be used as a stabilizing agent in more unexpected food products, such as
ice cream and ketchup.
Foods of this kind may therefore present problems for a small number of consumers because the hidden gluten constitutes a hazard for people with what?
A: Celiac disease and gluten sensitivities.
"Gluten-related disorders" is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by what?
A: Gluten, which include celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), wheat allergy, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH).
Currently where is their incidence increasing?
A: In most geographic areas of the world.
CD affects approximately 1–2% of the general population, but most cases remain what?
A: Unrecognized, undiagnosed and untreated, and at risk for serious long-term health complications.
People can also experience adverse effects of wheat as result of a what?
A: A wheat allergy.
As with most allergies, a wheat allergy causes the immune system to abnormally respond to a component of wheat that it treats as a what?
A: A threatening foreign body.
This immune response is often time-limited and does not cause what?
A: Lasting harm to body tissues.
Gastrointestinal symptoms of wheat allergy are similar to those of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, but there is a different what?
A: Interval between exposure to wheat and onset of symptoms.
An allergic reaction to wheat has a fast what?
A: Onset (from minutes to hours) after the consumption of food containing wheat and could include anaphylaxis.