What is a disease?
A: A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury.
Diseases are often construed as medical conditions that are associated with specific what?
A: Symptoms and signs.
A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by what?
A: Internal dysfunctions.
Internal dysfunctions of the immune system can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of what?
A: Immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, allergies and autoimmune disorders.
In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes what?
A: Pain, dysfunction, distress,
social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person.
Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person's what?
A: Perspective on life.
Death due to disease is called death by what?
A: Natural causes.
What are the four main types of disease?
A: Infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases (including both genetic diseases and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological diseases.
What are the deadliest diseases in humans?
A: Coronary artery disease (blood flow obstruction), followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections.
What is the study of disease called?
A: Pathology, which includes the study of etiology, or cause.
In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity, sickness and illness are used how?
There are situations, however, when specific terms are what?
A: Considered preferable.
The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs what?
A: The normal functioning of the body.
For this reason, diseases are associated with dysfunctioning of the body's what?
A: Normal homeostatic processes.
Commonly, the term is used to refer specifically to what type of diseases?
A: Infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multi-cellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions.
An infection or colonization that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning is not considered a what?
A: A disease.
An infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered what?
A: A disease.
Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of what?
A: Cancer, heart disease, and genetic disease.
An acquired disease is one that began at some point during one's lifetime, as opposed to disease that was already present when?
A: At birth which is congenital disease.
Acquired sounds like it could mean "caught via contagion", but it simply means what?
A: Acquired sometime after birth.
It also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be what?
A: Primary disease.
An acute disease is one of a what?
A: A short-term nature (acute).
A chronic disease is one that what?
A: Persists over time, often characterized six months or more.
A congenital disorder is one that is present when?
A: At birth.
It is often a genetic disease or disorder and can be what?
It can also be the result of a vertically transmitted infection from the mother, such as what?
A genetic disorder or disease is caused by what?
A: One or more genetic mutations.
It is often inherited, but some mutations are what?
A: Random and de novo.
An iatrogenic disease or condition is one that caused by what?
A: By medical intervention, whether as a side effect of a treatment or as an inadvertent outcome.
An idiopathic disease has a what?
A: An unknown cause or source.
As medical science has advanced, many diseases with entirely
unknown causes have had some aspects of their sources what?
A: Explained and therefore shed their idiopathic status.
Autoimmunity is the cause of some forms of
diabetes mellitus type 1, even though the particular molecular pathways by which it works are what?
A: Not yet understood.
Incurable diseases are not necessarily what?
A: Terminal diseases.
Sometimes a disease's symptoms can be treated sufficiently for the disease to have what?
A: Little or no impact on quality of life.
A primary disease is a disease that is due to a root cause of illness, as opposed to secondary disease, which is a what?
A: A sequela, or complication that is caused by the primary disease.
For example, a common cold is a primary disease, where rhinitis is a possible what?
A: Secondary disease, or sequela.
A doctor must determine what primary disease, a cold or a bacterial infection, is causing a patient's secondary rhinitis when deciding what?
A: Whether or not to prescribe antibiotics.
A primary burn that creates an open wound could provide an entry point for bacteria, and lead to a what?
A: A secondary bacterial infection.
A terminal disease is one that is expected to have what inevitable outcome?
Previously, AIDS was a terminal disease; it is now incurable, but can be what?
A: Managed indefinitely using medications.
The terms Illness and sickness are both generally used as a what?
A: A synonym for disease.
A disorder is a what?
A: A functional abnormality or disturbance.
Medical disorders can be categorized into what groups?
A: Mental disorders, physical disorders, genetic disorders, emotional and behavioral disorders, and functional disorders.
The term disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less stigmatizing than what terms?
A: Disease or illness, and therefore is a preferred terminology in some circumstances.
In mental health, the term mental disorder is used as a way of acknowledging the complex interaction of what?
A: Of biological, social, and psychological factors in psychiatric conditions.
The term disorder is used in many areas of medicine, primarily to identify what?
A: Physical disorders that are not caused by infectious organisms, such as metabolic disorders.
A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases, lesions, disorders, or non-pathologic condition that normally receives what?
A: Medical treatment, such as pregnancy or childbirth.
While the term medical condition generally includes mental illnesses, in some contexts the term is used specifically to denote what?
A: Any illness, injury, or disease except for mental illnesses.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the widely used psychiatric manual that defines all mental disorders, uses the term general medical condition to refer to what?
A: All diseases, illnesses, and injuries except for mental disorders.
This usage is also commonly seen where?
A: In the psychiatric literature.
Some health insurance policies also define a medical condition as what?
A: Any illness, injury, or disease except for psychiatric illnesses.
The term medical condition is also a synonym for medical state, in which case it describes what?
A: An individual patient's current state from a medical standpoint.
What is Morbidity?
A: A diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause.
The term may be used to refer to the existence of any form of disease, or to what?
A: The degree that the health condition affects the patient.
Among severely ill patients, the level of morbidity is often measured by what?
A: ICU scoring systems.
Comorbidity is the simultaneous presence of two or more medical conditions, such as what?
A: Schizophrenia and substance abuse.
In epidemiology and actuarial science, the term "morbidity rate" can refer to either the incidence rate, or the what?
A: The prevalence of a disease or medical condition.
This measure of sickness is contrasted with the mortality rate of a condition, which is what?
A: The proportion of people dying during a given time interval.
Morbidity rates are used in actuarial professions, such as health insurance, life insurance and long-term care insurance, to determine what?
A: The correct premiums to charge to customers.
What do Morbidity rates help health insurers predict?
A: The likelihood that an insured will contract or develop any number of specified diseases.